A biodiversidade do solo desempenha um papel fundamental na manutenção de suas funções. Os grupos funcionais microbianos incluem microrganismos especializados na ciclagem biogeoquímica, estando envolvidos nos processos de decomposição e mineralização da matéria orgânica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi revisar os principais grupos funcionais do solo, como os distúrbios bióticos e abióticos afetam essas comunidades e seu potencial como bioindicadores. Os principais grupos estão relacionados com os ciclos do carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo e ferro. Incluem bactérias celulolíticas, fixadoras de nitrogênio, solubilizadoras de fósforo, produtoras de sideróforos, entre outras. Estudos demonstram que esses grupos são impactados por fatores como mudanças no uso da terra, fertilizantes, mecanização e mudanças climáticas. O monitoramento da dinâmica funcional dessas comunidades permite avaliar alterações na funcionalidade do solo. Diversas abordagens podem ser utilizadas para investigar esses grupos, desde técnicas tradicionais até modernas. O uso desses microrganismos como indicadores possibilita a gestão sustentável do solo.
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